Tantalum: Pioneering Electric Vehicle Innovation


As the automotive industry undergoes a seismic shift toward sustainable mobility, the role of tantalum, a rare and versatile metal, emerges as a crucial linchpin in the realm of electric vehicle (EV) innovation. This unassuming element, with its remarkable properties, plays a pivotal role in reshaping the landscape of modern transportation.

Electric Vehicles

Tantalum’s Remarkable Properties:

Tantalum, known for its exceptional resistance to corrosion and its ability to store and release electrical energy efficiently, stands out as a vital component in the drive for cleaner, more efficient transport solutions. Its high melting point, robustness in harsh conditions, and compatibility with other materials make it an ideal candidate for critical applications within electric vehicles.

Tantalum Used in Electric Vehicles

Tantalum, a rare and highly valuable transition metal, plays a pivotal role in various industries, including the automotive sector, particularly in the realm of electric cars. Here’s a closer look at how tantalum intersects with the electric vehicle (EV) industry:

1. Capacitors and Electronics:

Tantalum capacitors, known for their high capacitance and stability, are integral components in EVs. These capacitors are vital for managing electrical systems, controlling battery power, and ensuring stable voltage levels. They contribute to the efficiency and reliability of electric vehicle electronics.

2. Battery Technology:

Although tantalum is not a primary component in electric vehicle batteries, it indirectly influences battery performance. Tantalum powders are utilized in the production of tantalum-based capacitors, which aid in regulating power delivery and ensuring the safety and longevity of lithium-ion batteries used in EVs.

3. Heat-Resistant Components:

Tantalum possesses exceptional heat resistance, making it suitable for components in electric vehicles exposed to high temperatures. It finds applications in thermal management systems, such as heat shields and elements within electric propulsion systems, ensuring durability in demanding operating conditions.

4. Sustainability and Recycling:

Tantalum’s recyclability aligns with the sustainability goals of the EV industry. Efforts to recycle and reclaim tantalum from end-of-life electronic components contribute to reducing the environmental impact of EV production and align with eco-friendly manufacturing practices.

Tantalum’s Benefits for Electric Vehicle Applications

–Tantalum in Energy Storage:

Within the heart of electric cars lie tantalum-based capacitors. These capacitors, leveraging tantalum’s high capacitance and stability, serve as reliable energy storage devices in EVs. Tantalum capacitors offer exceptional performance, delivering instantaneous power for rapid acceleration and regenerative braking, effectively capturing and redistributing energy during braking cycles, thus maximizing the vehicle’s energy efficiency.

–Enhancing Efficiency and Range:

Tantalum’s role extends beyond capacitors. It also contributes significantly to the development of lithium-based batteries. Tantalum-based additives enhance the performance and lifespan of lithium-ion batteries, addressing issues of overheating and improving their charging efficiency. These advancements increase the overall energy density and extend the driving range of electric vehicles, a critical factor in mainstream adoption.

–Enabling Sustainable Mobility:

In the pursuit of sustainable mobility, tantalum plays a key role in reducing the carbon footprint of electric vehicles. Its presence in energy storage solutions promotes cleaner energy utilization, mitigating reliance on fossil fuels and contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, thus aligning with global sustainability goals.

Challenges and Future Prospects

Despite its invaluable contributions, the availability and ethical sourcing of tantalum pose challenges. Being a conflict-sensitive material, responsible sourcing practices and efforts to prevent the trade of “conflict minerals” remain critical. The industry’s focus on ethical mining and sourcing practices aims to ensure a responsible supply chain for tantalum, securing its place in the clean energy revolution.

Collaborative Innovations for Tomorrow’s EVs

Tantalum’s integration into the EV ecosystem is not a solitary endeavor. Collaborative efforts between tantalum producers, battery manufacturers, and automotive companies drive continuous innovations. Research and development initiatives centered on improving tantalum-based technologies focus on maximizing energy storage, minimizing weight, and enhancing the overall performance of electric vehicles.


As electric vehicles continue to gain prominence as a sustainable mobility solution, tantalum emerges as a silent but formidable force propelling this revolution forward. Its contributions to energy storage, efficiency optimization, and sustainability align with the aspirations of a cleaner, greener automotive future. With ongoing advancements and responsible utilization, tantalum remains an indispensable element in the electrification of transportation, paving the way for a more sustainable and efficient automotive industry. For more information, please check our homepage at https://samaterials.com/.

Aluminum vs. Tantalum Capacitors: Understanding the Key Differences


Capacitors are essential components in electronic circuits. They store and release electrical energy as needed. Two commonly used types of capacitors are aluminum electrolytic capacitors and tantalum capacitors. While they share the same fundamental function, they exhibit significant differences. This article will explore the distinctions between aluminum and tantalum capacitors. Hope that you can find the best suited for your specific application.

Different Tantalum Capacitors [1]

1. Dielectric Material:

  • Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors: These capacitors use an electrolyte (usually a liquid or gel) as the dielectric. The electrolyte is typically a conductive solution that allows for a high capacitance value.
  • Tantalum Capacitors: Tantalum capacitors use tantalum metal as the dielectric. These capacitors have a solid electrolyte made of manganese dioxide.

2. Polarity:

  • Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors: These capacitors are polarized. That is to say, they have a positive and a negative terminal, and they must be connected with the correct polarity to function properly.
  • Tantalum Capacitors: Tantalum capacitors are also polarized, with a marked positive terminal. Connecting them with the wrong polarity can result in catastrophic failure and potentially even safety hazards.

3. Capacitance and Size:

  • Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors: They typically offer higher capacitance values compared to tantalum capacitors for a given physical size.
  • Tantalum Capacitors: Tantalum capacitors have a lower capacitance compared to aluminum electrolytic capacitors of similar physical dimensions. They are often smaller in size for the same capacitance value.

4. Voltage Rating:

  • Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors: They are available in a wide range of voltage ratings, making them suitable for various voltage requirements.
  • Tantalum Capacitors: Tantalum capacitors usually have lower voltage ratings compared to aluminum electrolytic capacitors.

5. ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance):

  • Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors: They typically have higher ESR, so they have more internal resistance. This can affect their performance, particularly in high-frequency applications.
  • Tantalum Capacitors: Tantalum capacitors have lower ESR, so they are more suitable for power supply filtering and other low ESR applications.

6. Reliability:

  • Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors: They are generally less reliable and have a shorter lifespan compared to tantalum capacitors. They can dry out or degrade over time.
  • Tantalum Capacitors: Tantalum capacitors are known for their long-term reliability and stable performance.

7. Cost:

  • Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors: They are typically more cost-effective compared to tantalum capacitors.
  • Tantalum Capacitors: Tantalum capacitors are more expensive due to the cost of tantalum materials and their manufacturing processes.


In summary, the choice between aluminum electrolytic capacitors and tantalum capacitors depends on the specific requirements of your application. You should consider capacitance value, size constraints, voltage rating, ESR, and budget. Each type has its own advantages and limitations, so it’s important to select the one that best suits your needs. For more information, please check our homepage.




[1] Tantalum capacitor. (2023, October 6). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantalum_capacitor


Diverse Types of Tantalum Alloys


Tantalum, a transition metal known for its remarkable corrosion resistance and high melting point, is a valuable material in a wide range of industries. However, to cater to specific applications, tantalum is often alloyed with other elements, creating tantalum alloys. These alloys combine tantalum’s inherent properties with those of other metals to enhance characteristics like strength, heat resistance, and corrosion resistance. This article delves into the world of tantalum alloys, examining various types and their applications.

Tantalum-Tungsten (Ta-W) Alloys

Tantalum-Tungsten (Ta-W) Alloys

Tantalum-W, or Ta-W alloys, are designed for applications that require high-temperature resistance. By combining tantalum with tungsten, these alloys offer superior heat resistance, making them suitable for industries such as aerospace and electronics, where components are exposed to extreme temperatures.

Related reading: What Is Tantalum Tungsten Alloy?

2. Tantalum-Niobium (Ta-Nb) Alloys

Tantalum-Niobium alloys are prized for their corrosion resistance. These alloys find their way into chemical processing and aerospace, among other applications. They are known for their enhanced strength and ductility, making them versatile choices in demanding environments.

3. Tantalum-Hafnium (Ta-Hf) Alloys

Tantalum-Hafnium alloys are ideal for nuclear applications due to their exceptional stability at high temperatures. These alloys are used in nuclear reactors, ensuring the safe containment of radioactive materials.

4. Tantalum-Titanium (Ta-Ti) Alloys

In the medical field, tantalum-titanium alloys are utilized for biocompatible implants. These alloys combine tantalum’s corrosion resistance with the lightweight properties of titanium, making them suitable for surgical implants and prosthetics.

5. Tantalum-Zirconium (Ta-Zr) Alloys

Ta-Zr alloys are corrosion-resistant materials often employed in chemical processing. Their ability to withstand hot acids and aggressive chemicals makes them crucial for industries that deal with corrosive substances.

6. Tantalum-Nickel (Ta-Ni) Alloys

Ta-Ni alloys are popular in electronic components, as they offer tailored electrical properties. They provide a balance between electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance, making them ideal for various electronic devices.


Tantalum alloys have proven to be invaluable in various industries, offering a diverse range of properties tailored to specific applications. From high-temperature resistance in tantalum-tungsten alloys to biocompatible implants in tantalum-titanium alloys, the versatility of tantalum alloys continues to drive innovation in numerous fields. As technology advances and industries evolve, tantalum alloys will likely play an increasingly pivotal role in enabling cutting-edge solutions and ensuring the longevity and reliability of critical components. For more information, please check our homepage.

Rare Watchmaking Metal – Tantalum

Within the world of watchmaking, there has always been an unquenchable thirst for material innovation. Over the past few decades, the arms race of the age of the new materials has given rise to countless alloys, each surpassing the others in terms of strength and durability.

Big Bang Tantalum

Technology continues to advance, prompting us to desperately tap into the potential of the periodic table of elements in search of the next exotic metal that can replace gold and titanium.

Today let’s learn about a new metal material for space: tantalum. Tantalum, a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73, takes its name “Tantalum” from the Greek myth of Tantalus. With a core mass of 16.7 g/cm3, tantalum has a similar weight to 18-carat gold. A hard, blue-gray, rare transition metal, tantalum has a much harder surface than other metals used in watchmaking, such as stainless steel, gold and titanium. It is extremely resistant to corrosion.

Tantalum is a refractory metal with a melting point of 3017 °C (boiling point 5458 °C), only tungsten, rhenium, osmium, and carbon have a higher melting point than it. It is often used as a secondary component of alloys. Tantalum’s low chemical activity makes it resistant to acid corrosion, and it is even resistant to aqua regia at temperatures below 150 °C. It is a suitable substitute for platinum as a material for laboratory equipment. It has a characteristic blue color that lurks beneath a lustrous silver-tone, providing an invisible luster that no other metal, not even titanium, can achieve.

Tantalum’s unique physicochemical properties are what attract high-end luxury watches. Imagine a watch that is almost heavier than gold or platinum, with a distinctive blue/gray hue, while staying away from the exaggerated nature of gold. And with no signs of aging corrosion over the years! This rare space metal has so far only found its way into the product lines of a few fine watchmaking brands.

The use of tantalum in the watch industry

The body of an OMEGA watch is titanium, and the bezel and central double link of the watch are tantalum. The two metals are easier to distinguish: titanium is gray with a slight yellow tint, while tantalum is darker with a blue tint.

The Hublot Big Bang Tantalum has been a staple of Hublot’s line since its launch in 2005, and although it has been re-imagined in a dozen different material and color combinations, the Tantalum variant tops the list. The grey timepiece has a diameter of 44.5 mm, a case, lugs and bezel made of the rare metal tantalum, and a brushed dial that displays the time, date and chronograph functions. As with most Big Bang, Hublot seamlessly blends contrasting materials, combining a rustic, soft tantalum watch with a black rubber strap.

Girard-Perregaux Bi-Axial Tantalum & Sapphire Tourbillon Girard-Perregaux first introduced its lightweight titanium tourbillon biaxial tourbillon just one year after its tantalum case was born – a stunning hand-wound mechanical piece whose distinctive look defined it.

Ten Metals with the Highest Melting Points on Earth!

Tungsten and tungsten wire bulbs have the highest melting points of all metals. In addition, do you know which metal elements have melting points?

highest melting points metal

This article will take a look at the top ten metals with the highest melting points.


Tungsten is a silvery-white metal shaped like steel. It has the highest melting point of any metal element, up to 3422°C, and a boiling point of 5927°C, making it the highest melting point in the world. It is an ultra-high temperature-resistant metal, ranking first in the list of metals with the highest melting points. As a rare high melting point metal, tungsten is commonly used as a lamp filament because when an electric lamp is turned on, the filament reaches temperatures of up to 3000°C. Only tungsten can withstand such high temperatures. In addition, tungsten increases the high-temperature hardness of steel. Meanwhile, tungsten is widely used in the alloy, electronic and chemical industries because of its high melting point, high hardness, high density, and good electrical conductivity. At present, more than 20 kinds of tungsten minerals and tungsten-bearing minerals have been found on the earth.


Rhenium is a silvery-white rare metal with a high melting point. It has the second highest melting point of all metals, second only to tungsten. Its melting point is as high as 3180℃ and its boiling point is 5900℃. Because of its high melting point, rhenium is more difficult to obtain than diamonds and is one of the rarest elements in the earth’s crust, making it very expensive and among the most expensive metals in the world. Rhenium and its alloys are widely used in the aerospace, electronics industry, petrochemicals, and other fields, especially in high-efficiency jet engines and rocket engines, and are therefore of great importance in military strategy.

high melting metal


Osmium is a high-density rare metal, belonging to the heavy platinum group of metals, and is the world’s highest density metal. Osmium is found in osmium-iridium ores, which are extremely difficult to mine because of their density of 22.48 g/cm3, a high melting point of 3045°C, and a boiling point above 5027°C, making them one of the three metals with the highest melting points in the world. Osmium has a wide range of applications and can be used to make ultra-hard alloys. It is mainly used as a catalyst in the industry. It is often used to make products with other metals to extend their life.


Tantalum is a rare metal mineral resource found mainly in tantalite, which coexists with niobium. With a density of 16.68 g/cm³, a melting point of 2980°C, and a boiling point of 5425°C, it is the fourth most insoluble metal after tungsten, rhenium, and osmium. As a rare metal, tantalum has a high melting point, low vapor pressure, good cold processing performance, high chemical stability, and strong resistance to liquid metal corrosion, and has a wide range of application prospects. It has important applications in high-tech fields such as electronics, metallurgy, steel, chemical industry, cemented carbide, atomic energy, superconductivity technology, automotive electronics, aerospace, and medical and scientific research. Almost half of the world’s tantalum metal production is used to produce tantalum capacitors.


Molybdenum is a transition metal element. It is an essential trace element for humans, animals, and plants. It is also the metal element with the highest melting point. It has a density of 10.2 g/cm³, a melting point of 2610°C, and a boiling point of 5560°C. Molybdenum is a silvery-white metal that is hard and tough. Like tungsten, it is a refractory and rare metal. According to worldwide molybdenum consumption statistics, molybdenum still occupies the most important position in the steel industry, accounting for about 80 percent of total molybdenum consumption, followed by the chemical industry, which accounts for about 10 percent. In addition, molybdenum is also used in medicine, agriculture, and electrical and electronic technology, which accounts for about 10 percent of total consumption.


What metal has the highest melting point? Niobium is one of the metals with the highest melting point in the world. Niobium is a silvery gray, soft, and ductile rare high melting point metal with a density of 8.57 g/cm³, a melting point of 2477°C, and a boiling point of 4744°C. At room temperature, niobium does not react with air, but at high temperatures, it combines directly with sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Niobium has good superconductivity, corrosion resistance, high melting point, and wear resistance and is widely used in steel, superconducting materials, aerospace, electronics industry, medical, and other fields. Niobium does not occur in nature in its pure state but is combined with other elements to form minerals. Brazil and Canada are still the largest producers of niobium concentrates.


Iridium is extremely chemically stable in acids and is insoluble in acids. It is the most corrosion-resistant metal and the metal material with the highest melting point. Its density is 22.56 g/cm³, melting point 2450°C, and boiling point 4130°C. The amount of iridium in the earth’s crust is 1/10 million. It is often dispersed in various ores of alluvial deposits and alluvial mines together with platinum-based elements. It is rare precious metal material and belongs to the platinum family of metals. Iridium can be used in a wide range of industrial and medical applications due to its high melting point, high hardness, and corrosion resistance.


Ruthenium is one of the platinum group metals. It is the least abundant of the platinum group elements in the earth’s crust and the last of the platinum group elements. Ruthenium is a rare transition metal with stable properties and high corrosion resistance, with a melting point of 2310°C and a boiling point of 3900°C, making it the highest melting point metal material in the world. It has a variety of uses and is commonly used in electronics. It is cheaper than rhodium, has very similar properties, and is commonly used to produce electrical contacts, wires, and electrodes.


Hafnium is a shiny silver-gray transition metal with a density of 13.31 g/cm³, a melting point of 2233°C, and a boiling point of 4603°C. It is one of the metals with the highest melting point on earth and ranks ninth among the metals with the highest melting point. in 1925, the Swedish chemist Hedwig and the Dutch physicist Kost obtained pure hafnium salts by stepwise crystallization of fluorine-containing complex salts and reduction with sodium metal to obtain pure Hafnium metal. Hafnium is rarely found in the earth’s crust and usually coexists with zirconium. Hafnium is used as an atomic energy material, alloy material, high-temperature resistant material, electronic material, etc. because of its high-temperature resistance, oxidation resistance, corrosion resistance, ease of processing, rapid heat absorption, and exotherm.


What is a high melting point metal? Technetium is one of the metals with the highest melting point on earth, with a melting point of 2157℃ and a boiling point of 4265℃. Technetium is also the first element prepared by artificial methods. It was first obtained by bombarding molybdenum with deuterium (heavy hydrogen) in a cyclotron. The element symbol is TC. it belongs to group VIIB of the periodic table and the element is a silvery-white metal. Technetium is used as a tracer in metallurgy, low-temperature chemistry, corrosion-resistant products, nuclear fuel burn-up measurements, and medical research.


Rhodium is a silvery-white, hard metal that belongs to the platinum family of elements. It is also the most expensive precious metal in the world and is extremely rare. Rhodium has a higher melting point than platinum, with a melting point of 1966°C and a boiling point of 3727°C. Rhodium is insoluble in most acids, has a high melting point, and is surprisingly resistant to corrosion. This silver metal is commonly used because of its reflective properties. In addition to making alloys, it is also used as a bright and hard coating for other metals. However, due to the high price of rhodium, it is usually used only as an additive element, except for special applications.


Vanadium is a silvery-white metal and has one of the highest melting points of any metallic element. With a melting point of 1890°C and a boiling point of 3380°C, it has the element symbol v and belongs to the VB group in the periodic table of elements. It is known as a refractory metal along with niobium, tantalum, tungsten, and molybdenum. Among the properties of vanadium, it rarely forms as a stand-alone mineral and is mainly found in vanadium-titanium magnetite. However, world reserves of vanadium and titanium magnetite are enormous and are concentrated in a few countries and regions such as Russia, South Africa, Australia, and the United States. Vanadium is widely used in the metallurgical, aerospace, chemical, and battery industries in the form of ferrovanadium, vanadium compounds, and vanadium metal.

What are the Medical Applications of Tantalum?

Metal materials have excellent comprehensive mechanical properties and anti-fatigue properties and are especially suitable for bone replacement implantation of human-bearing parts. Therefore, many kinds of metal materials such as stainless steel, titanium alloy, and cobalt-base alloy have been widely used in the clinic as biomedical materials and have achieved a good therapeutic effect.

tantalum stents

However, the complex human body environment will lead to corrosion of materials and the release of toxic elements, which will lead to the reduced biocompatibility of metal materials. In addition, the elastic modulus of the metal material is too different from human bone tissue, and it is easy to produce a stress shielding effect, which is not conducive to the growth and remodeling of new bone and even leads to secondary fracture.

At present, tantalum metal attracts the attention of medical workers and materials researchers with its unique advantages and is widely used in the following aspects.

biomedical materials
Biomedical materials

Tantalum wire

Tantalum is so malleable that it can be made into even finer strands of hair. As a surgical suture, tantalum wire has the advantages of simple sterilization, less stimulation, and high tensile strength, but it also has the disadvantages of not easy knotting. Tantalum wire can be used to suture bone, tendon, and fascia, as well as reduce suture or internal dental fixation. It can also be used as a suture line for internal surgery or embedded in artificial eyeballs. Moreover, tantalum wire can even replace tendons and nerve fibers.

Tantalum sheet

Tantalum metal can be made into tantalum sheets of various shapes and sizes and implanted according to the needs of various parts of the human body, such as repairing and sealing the cracks and defects of broken skull bones and limbs fractures. An artificial ear made from tantalum sheets is attached to the head before the skin is transplanted. After a while, the new skin grew so well that it was barely visible as an artificial tantalum ear.

Tantalum stents

Tantalum wire can be used to weave the reticulocytes stent. Tantalum stent can be clearly seen under X-ray, which is very convenient for monitoring and follow-up, and there is no fracture and corrosion in the body for a long time. Tantalum has good flexibility, so the stents can better adapt to the normal pulse of arteries and can be released quickly and accurately.

Tantalum stents

Porous tantalum rod

Porous tantalum rod is a kind of honeycomb three-dimensional rod-shaped structure with characteristics of the human cancellous bone structure, with an average porosity of 430~m and a porosity of 75 ~ 80. The elastic modulus of the porous tantalum rod is about 3GPa, which is between the cancellous bone (about 1GPa) and cortical bone (about 15GPa), far lower than the commonly used titanium alloy implanted human material (about 11OGPa), thus avoiding the stress shielding effect.

Porous tantalum rod implantation is mainly used for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in the early and middle stages. Femoral head necrosis is a kind of functional disease caused by the destruction of the blood circulation of the femoral head. It may affect the function at any age, but it usually occurs in young people. For the treatment of early femoral head necrosis, the main methods include reducing the internal pressure of the femoral head, increasing the blood supply of the femoral head, and preventing or slowing the deformation of the femoral head. The porous tantalum rod has a good supporting effect on the necrotic area of the femoral head, avoids the collapse of the femoral head, and has the potential for revascularization in the necrotic area of the femoral head.

Porous tantalum artificial joint

As an artificial joint material, the porous tantalum also has obvious advantages. The porous tantalum has a certain elasticity. When it interacts with the cortical bone with a relatively large elastic modulus, it will produce slight deformation in a certain range without fracture. This property allows the porous tantalum acetabular cover to better match the bone acetabular, improving the initial stability of the implant and reducing the possibility of acetabular fractures.

The results of the clinical experiment of total knee replacement with porous tantalum showed that the structure of porous tantalum provided sufficient support, and the patient’s bone healed well. In addition, the reduction of bone mineral salt density in patients using tantalum total knee replacement is smaller than that in patients using the cobalt-chromium alloy, but the long-term clinical effect remains to be further studied. Due to the inertia of tantalum itself and the appropriate mechanical properties and good biocompatibility of porous tantalum with the human body, porous tantalum will play a greater role in the field of artificial joints.

Porous tantalum artificial joint
Porous tantalum artificial joint

Porous tantalum filler material

Porous tantalum can also be used as filling material for all parts of the human body, such as tissue reconstruction after tumor resection, dissolving filling of the neck and lumbar spine, and vertebral arch replacement. Because of the nearly perfect fusion of porous tantalum in mechanical properties, tissue growth, and processing properties, it provides a wide design space for the molding of porous tantalum.

Tantalum coating

Tantalum metal has been used for its excellent corrosion resistance, and it is coated on the surface of some medical metal materials to prevent the release of toxic elements and improve the biocompatibility of the metal materials, as well as the visibility of materials in the human body. In addition to metallic materials, tantalum can be coated on non-metallic materials such as carbon cage surface tantalum for spinal fusion, the tantalum coating increases the strength and toughness of the carbon cage to fit the spine and better meet the requirements of the surgical process. Tantalum can also be coated on the surface of materials with some polymer composites to improve the visibility and biocompatibility of materials.

Please visit http://www.samaterials.com for more information.

Why Can the Tantalum Metal be used in Medical Operations?

Since the discovery of tantalum in 1802, the understanding and development of tantalum have had a long history. Tantalum metal is characterized by corrosion resistance, hard quality, high melting point, good thermal conductivity, good affinity with the human body, and easy processing, which is widely used in the fields of metallurgy, chemical industry, atomic energy, aerospace, electronics, and medical devices.


Biocompatibility test of tantalum metal

Biocompatibility refers to the concept of various biological, physical, and chemical reactions resulting from interactions between materials and organisms. Generally speaking, it is the degree of compatibility between the material and the human body after implantation, that is, whether it will cause a toxic effect on human tissue.

The principle of biosafety is to eliminate the destructive effect of biological materials on human organs, such as cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity. If biomaterials are to be successful, they must at least be accepted by the host without harmful effects. Therefore, biological safety evaluation, that is, biological evaluation, should be carried out on biological materials.

porous tantalum

Insoluble tantalum salt is not absorbed by the human body through oral or local injection, and the absorption amount of soluble tantalum salt in the gastrointestinal tract is very small. Once tantalum enters the body, the main carrier responsible for the removal of tantalum is phagocytes. In the body, phagocytes can survive and have no cellular degeneration after 1h exposure to tantalum dust, with only a significant increase in glucose oxidation. Under the same conditions, silica dust can cause severe cytoplasmic degeneration and death of phagocytes, indicating that tantalum is non-cytotoxic.

Through abundant domestic and foreign materials, it is found that porous tantalum has the following advantages compared with titanium alloy.

The advantages of porous tantalum nails are one with the advantages of metal materials. After implantation, as the bone tissue grows, the fixation strength of porous tantalum nail will gradually increase. Meanwhile, as the bone tissue grows, blood circulation is also introduced into the nail body, which is conducive to preventing the occurrence of fracture nonunion and femoral head necrosis. The porous tantalum nail has excellent biocompatibility with bone. It does not need to be taken out after implantation, which can effectively prevent the risk of fracture after the removal of internal fixation. Therefore, porous tantalum nail has a good long-term effect in the treatment of femoral neck fracture and has a broad application prospect in other disciplines of orthopedics and medicine.

Application case of tantalum nail

Porous tantalum nail implantation is an ideal minimally invasive surgical treatment for the treatment of early Avascular Necrosis of Femur Head (ANFH) in adults. It has unique physical and biological advantages and is expected to achieve therapeutic effects that traditional therapies do not, as well as in line with the current concept of minimally invasive. For osteonecrosis in stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ young patients, it can relieve pain and minimize complications, at least slow down or even avoid the joint replacement, but the long-term curative effect is yet to be large sample especially central level and long-term follow-up.

Stanford Advanced Materials supplies high-quality tantalum products to meet our customers’ R&D and production needs. Please visit http://www.samaterials.com for more information.

Applications of Tantalum Metal in Medical Field

As a kind of biomedical material, the metal material is widely used in clinical medicine because of its high suitability for mechanical properties and fatigue resistance and is suitable for the implantation of bearing parts.

However, the development of metal materials in the medical field is limited by the corrosion of materials in the human body. In recent years, tantalum metal has attracted more and more attention from medical and materials workers due to its unique advantages such as excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.


Many kinds of metal materials, such as stainless steel, titanium base, and cobalt base alloy, have been widely used in the clinic and have achieved a certain therapeutic effect. However, the complex human body environment may cause the corrosion of materials and lead to the release of toxic substances, which greatly reduces the biocompatibility of metal materials. In addition, the elastic modulus of some metal materials is too different from the human bone tissue, which is not conducive to the growth and remodeling of new bone and easy to leads to secondary fracture. These adverse conditions limit the application of metal materials as biomedical materials. Tantalum, also a metal material, is attracting more and more medical workers and materials researchers with its unique advantages.

Good corrosion resistance

At room temperature, tantalum does not react with hydrochloric acid, concentrated nitric acid, or even aqua regia, and ordinary inorganic salts cannot corrode it.

Good biocompatibility

Unlike conventional medical metal materials, biological tissue grows on tantalum after a period of implantation, just as it grows on real bones. Therefore, tantalum is also known as “Biophilic Metal”

Appropriate modulus of elasticity

The elastic modulus of tantalum with a special pore structure is between the human cancellous bone and cortical bone, which is especially suitable for bone replacement, joint replacement, and human tissue filling.

Tantalum metal is very safe, and insoluble tantalum salt is not absorbed by the human body through oral or local injection; soluble tantalum salt is also absorbed very little by the gastrointestinal tract. Once tantalum enters the body, the main carrier responsible for removing tantalum is the phagocyte. After the exposure to tantalum dust for 1 hour, all phagocytes in the body can survive and have no cellular degeneration, with the only significant increase in glucose oxidation. Under the same conditions, silica dust can cause severe cytoplasmic degeneration and death of phagocytes, indicating that tantalum is not cytotoxic.

In 1940, pure tantalum metal was first used in medical treatment, and most reports believe that tantalum as a human implant did not find any adverse reactions. The application of tantalum metal mainly focuses on the use of porous tantalum, which is a honeycomb three-dimensional structure with characteristics of the human cancellous bone structure, and the average pore size of which is 430 μm and the porosity is 75%~80%. Porous tantalum can be made into various specifications and shapes. For example, porous tantalum rods can be used for the treatment of early ischemic necrosis of the femoral head; the combination of porous tantalum and human bone is firm, so tantalum can also be used in the preparation of artificial joints; the porous tantalum can also be used as filling material for all parts of the human body, such as tissue reconstruction after tumor resection, dissolving and filling of the neck and lumbar, and vertebral arch replacement.

Stanford Advanced Materials supplies high-quality tantalum and related products to meet our customers’ R&D and production needs. Please visit http://www.samaterials.com for more information.

How do tantalum products work in modern industry?

Capacitor tantalum powder

Tantalum electrolytic capacitor is an electronic device that takes tantalum as a metal anode and generates dielectric oxide film on the tantalum surface by anodic oxidation. The most important difference between tantalum capacitors and other types of capacitors is the quality of the tantalum oxide dielectric film, which has a high dielectric constant and breakdown voltage.

Generally speaking, the higher the purity of tantalum powder, the higher the breakdown voltage of the tantalum capacitor anode film. The tantalum powder has a high specific surface area, which can be remained even after compaction and sintering due to its special pore structure.

tantalum powder

Apart from the tantalum powder, tantalum foil is also used in foil capacitors, and tantalum wire is used as capacitor anode lead. In 2000, the annual output of tantalum capacitors reached 25 billion tons, requiring 800 tons of tantalum powder and nearly 150 tons of tantalum wire. Excellent performance such as high reliability and compactness, high efficiency, and long shelving time make tantalum capacitors be used in the instrument and control system of computers, communication systems, aircraft, missiles, ships, and weapon systems.

Tantalum and its alloys

The alloying of tantalum or tantalum-based alloy is usually carried out in the electron beam furnace. In order to obtain the ingot with uniform composition, vacuum arc remelting (VAR) is required after the smelting and purification in the electron beam furnace. All tantalum and tantalum alloy products are processed by electronic beam casting, and the use of vacuum arc remelting depends on the use of the product.

Tantalum alloy has the lowest ductile-brittle transition temperature, good low-temperature ductility, small work hardening coefficient, and excellent high-temperature strength, which is an ideal structural material for working under 1600-1800 ℃. At present, Ta-W and Ta-Nb alloy materials are mainly used in the manufacture of aerospace industry and space nuclear power system components.

Tantalum alloys

Other applications of tantalum

At present, the global annual consumption of tantalum is about 900 tons. The electronics industry is the largest and most promising application of tantalum, accounting for an estimated 66% of total consumption; the second application of tantalum is in the cutting tool industry, which accounts for 22 percent of total consumption; tantalum, as a superalloy high temperature strengthening additive, accounts for 6% of the total consumption; tantalum and tantalum alloy account for 3% of total consumption in valves, heat exchangers and plug-in heaters of chemical industries. As a biological material, tantalum is highly compatible with body fluids. In thoracic surgery, tantalum U nail is used to close vessels and arteries without an allergic reaction, and medical fields such as holes used to seal the skull during craniotomy account for about 1% of tantalum use. The other 2% of tantalum is used for military purposes.

Stanford Advanced Materials supplies high-quality tantalum products to meet our customers’ R&D and production needs. Please visit http://www.samaterials.com for more information.

Overview of the Metal Tantalum

Tantalum is a kind of refractory nonferrous metal with a hardness of 6-6.5. Its melting point can reach 2996 ℃, which is second only to tungsten and rhenium. Tantalum is malleable and can be drawn into thin foil, and it has a very small coefficient of thermal expansion, which is only 0.6 percent for every degree rise.

metal tantalum

Tantalum also has excellent chemical properties and is highly resistant to corrosion. Tantalum does not react with hydrochloric acid, concentrated nitric acid, and aqua regia under both cold and hot conditions. The experiments showed that tantalum did not react with the alkali solution, chlorine gas, bromine water, dilute sulfuric acid, and many other agents at room temperature, but only with hydrofluoric acid and hot concentrated sulfuric acid, which is relatively rare in metals.


Tantalum has a wide range of applications due to its excellent performance. For example, tantalum can be used as a substitute for stainless steel in the production of various inorganic acids. Besides that, tantalum can replace tasks that used to be undertaken by precious metal platinum in chemical, electronic, electrical, and other industries, thus greatly reducing the cost. Tantalum is manufactured into capacitor equipment for military use, and half of the world’s production of tantalum is used in tantalum capacitors. America’s military industry is unusually advanced, and it is the world’s largest arms exporter. The Defense Logistics Agency, the largest owner of tantalum, once bought a third of the world’s tantalum powder.

Tantalum is a kind of stable anodic oxide film in the acidic electrolyte. The electrolytic capacitor made of tantalum has the advantages of large capacity, small volume, and good reliability. Capacitor making is the most important use of tantalum, and the consumption of tantalum accounts for more than 2/3 at the end of the 1970s. Tantalum is also used to make electronic transmitter tubes and high-power tube parts. Moreover, Tantalum metal can be used as the structure of the combustor of the aircraft engine.

Tantalum and its alloys are widely used in all walks of life. Tantalum and tantalum-hafnium alloys are often used as heat-resistant, high-strength materials for rockets, missiles, and jet engines, as well as components for control and adjustment equipment. Tantalum is easy to be processed and shaped, so it is used as supporting accessories, heat shield, heater, and radiator in the high-temperature vacuum furnace. Tantalum carbide is used to make cemented carbide.

Boride, silicified, and nitride alloys of tantalum are used as heat release elements and liquid metal sheathing materials in the nuclear industry. Tantalum oxide is used in the manufacture of advanced optical glass and catalysts. In 1981, tantalum was consumed by about 73% of electronic components, 19% of the machinery industry, 6% of transportation, and 2% of the rest.

Stanford Advanced Materials supplies high-quality tantalum products to meet our customers’ R&D and production needs. Please visit http://www.samaterials.com for more information.